Spell and punctuate organisation names correctly. This helps people to understand your content.
Write the name as the organisation writes it
Organisations determine how their names should be spelt and punctuated. This does not always follow the usual rules.
Write the name of the organisation the same way the organisation writes it. This rule applies except in rare cases when the organisation name is in all lower case. Use an initial capital for these names in general text. This helps people identify the name as a proper noun.
Some names start with a lower case letter but have a medial capital (for example, ‘eBay’). Write the name the same way, including to begin a sentence. A medial capital is enough to identify the name as a proper noun.
eSafety keeps tips on its website topical and up to date.
Pay attention to the use of capital letters, punctuation (such as apostrophes) and logograms (such as ‘&’). Make sure to include all words in the name. Don’t add additional words.
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization [Note the lack of apostrophe for ‘Nations’ and the variant spelling of ‘Organization’.]
Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (
PM&C) [The ampersand is part of the initialism but not the spelt-out form.]
State Library Victoria [The name is not the ‘State Library of Victoria’. It does not include a preposition.]
Meat & Livestock Australia [The ampersand is part of the name.]
Check the correct name of an organisation
The names of organisations can change. The most efficient way to confirm an organisation’s name is to check its website, annual report or letterhead.
Other reliable sources include:
- For Australian Government entities, use the government online directory. It includes the Australian Government organisations register and the directories of state and territory governments. There are also website directories for some local governments.
- Libraries subscribe to directories that list organisations, such as the Directory of Australian associations and Margaret Gee’s media guide.
- Name searches are useful for company and business names, especially the Australian Business Register's ABN lookup, Australian Securities and Investments Commission registers and the Australian Securities Exchange’s listed companies.
Before September 2013, the Department of Social Services was called the ‘Department of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs’.
If you cite a source written by an organisation that has since changed its name, use the name that was published in the source. This may be the organisation’s past name.
Shortened forms of the name
Use the organisation’s shortened form only if the organisation regularly uses it in its own content.
For example, the Department of Home Affairs uses ‘Home Affairs’ as the shortened form. It would be inappropriate to use ‘DHA’ to refer to Home Affairs. However, Defence Housing Australia does use the initialism ‘DHA’, so using it to refer to that organisation would be appropriate.
Spell out the shortened form the first time, unless the organisation’s name is known only by the shortened form.
Zoning laws allowed
IKEA to lease the land.
Defence Housing Australia (
DHA) provides housing for Defence members and their families.
DHA also provides other related services.
Zoning laws allowed
Ingvar Kamprad Elmtaryd Agunnaryd (IKEA) to lease the land.
DHA provides housing for Defence members and their families.
Shortened forms as part of the name
Some organisations use shortened forms such as ‘Ltd’, ‘Pty Ltd’, ‘Co’ and ‘Inc’ as part of their legal name. Others use the spelt-out forms.
Use the organisation’s full title on first mention in a publication. On subsequent mentions in print documents, you can omit words like ‘proprietary’ and ‘limited’ and the corresponding shortened forms.
Capitalise organisations’ names in 2 situations
Use initial capitals for:
- all words capitalised in the full, official names of organisations
- the first mention of an organisation.
Don’t use an initial capital for:
- generic terms – such as ‘the department’ or ‘the agency’ – even if the organisation being referenced capitalises the generic term in its content
- mentions of several organisations with the same generic name.
Australian Academy of the Humanities – the academy
Department of Finance – the department
the departments of Health and Finance – the departments
Western Sydney University – the university
Australian Ballet Company – the company
Royal Commission into Misconduct in the Banking, Superannuation and Financial Services Industry – the royal commission
Gundagai Shire Council – the shire council/the council
Regional Australia Summit – the summit
In general text, use lower case for the definite article in the names of organisations
Some organisations use the definite article ‘The’ in their name with an initial capital. Use the full name, including ‘The’, in 2 situations:
- in emails and letters
- if the name appears in an alphabetical list (arrange by ‘The’ as the first word in the name).
Always use lower case ‘the’ in general text. This follows the practice of most organisations.
The University of Sydney [Correct name, not ‘University of Sydney’]
the University of Sydney will renovate its science buildings. [General text uses lower case for ‘the’]
If organisations omit the definite article from their name, don’t use it in emails and letters. In general text, ‘the’ appears before the correct name or isn’t needed at all.
Charles Sturt University [Correct name, not ‘The Charles Sturt University’]
Charles Sturt University examined whether early Australian wheat varieties caused allergic reactions. [General text does not use ‘the’]
Put a possessive apostrophe in a name if the organisation does
Use an apostrophe only when it forms part of the official name of an organisation.
’ and Entertainers
’ Benevolent Fund Qld
In all other cases for organisation names, don’t use possessive apostrophes.
The apostrophe is disappearing from many organisational names, particularly from those that contain plural nouns ending in ‘s’. In these cases, the plural noun is descriptive rather than possessive.
s and Investment
s Board of South Australia
s Council of Australia
Chief Government Geologist
Use the singular verb with organisation names
While it is grammatically correct to use a plural or singular verb with the names of organisations, this is not Australian Government style. Always use a singular verb. This applies even if organisation names end in an ‘s’ and look plural.
The Bureau of Meteorology
has been quick to respond.
is advertising its new stock.
The United Nations
turns 75 in 2020.
has reviewed its policies.
The Bureau of Meteorology
have been quick to respond.
are advertising their new stock.
The United Nations
turn 75 in 2020.
have reviewed their policies.
The digital edition consolidates and updates information from the sixth edition. It has links to online resources writers can use to ensure the information is up to date. In a departure from the sixth edition, the abbreviations ‘Co’ and ‘Inc’ do not have a full stop. This is consistent with Australian Securities and Investment Commission (ASIC) guidance and relevant legislation.
The sixth edition had relevant information on organisations’ names in different parts of the manual.
The Content Guide had an example to illustrate style for generic and full organisation names, consistent with the sixth edition, but no explicit guidance.
About this page
APSC (Australian Public Service Commission) (2020) APS agency listing: agencies covered by the Public Service Act 1999, APSC website, accessed 14 June 2020.
Australian Business Register (n.d.) ABN lookup, Australian Business Register website, accessed 10 June 2020.
Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission (n.d.) Charities, ACNC website, accessed 10 June 2020.
Australian Government (2020) Directory, Australian Government Directory website, accessed 10 June 2020.
Australian Securities and Investments Commission (n.d.) Search business names register, ASIC Connect website, accessed 10 June 2020.
Australian Securities Exchange (n.d.) ‘The official list (listed companies)’, Company information, ASX website, accessed 10 June 2020.
This page was updated Sunday 20 September 2020.